Manuscript: text; Figs
Figure 2: png; eps
Figure 3: png; eps
Figure 4: png; eps
Figure 5: png; eps
Figure 6: png; eps
Figure 7: png; eps
Figure 8: png; eps
Figure 11: png; eps
Figure 12: modify mixing:png; eps (default CACHE:png; eps)
Figure 13: png; eps
Figure 14: png; eps
Figure 15: png; eps

CACHE model results using MEGAN emission algorithm (Guenther,2006,ACP; S A K U L Y A N O N T V I T T A Y A, 2008,EST,Monoterpene and Sesquiterpene Emission Estimates for the United States)
Using emission factor of 50 ug/g/hr for isoprene (50g/m2), 1ug/g/hr for monoterpene (230g/m2)
note at Duke Forest, sweet gum is under pine, so sweet gum is always under shade. so the longer PAR for sweet gum is set to be 120
            Select speed:   Animation toggle        
PAN animation
animation of PAN, removed
The above animation shows how PAN help transfer Nitrogen to upper layer. In the morning, the oxidation of terpene would produce acetaldehyde near surface. The reaction of acetaldehyde with NO2 would procude PAN. Thus in the morning PAN is produced near surface. In the afternoon, surface PAN is well mixed in the PBL. Since upper layer has lower temperature, PAN in the upper layer is well preserved. So in such mechanism, PAN helped to transfer Nitrogen to upper layers, which could be transported to longer distance and afect the atmospheric chemistry in longer distance.
ControlRunMegan_KPP_RACM.tar; Forkel's CACHE model with MEGAN emission scheme and KPP RACM